By: Prof. Dr. Seyed Saeid Zamanieh Shahri, MD  and  Prof. Dr. Sonia Sayyedalhosseini, MD

Ovarian Cancer:

According to the latest achievements of medical science, it is known that this cancer starts from the fallopian tubes and enters the ovaries. There are two ovaries in the female body that produce gametes (female sex cells) and are the main source of female hormones (estrogen and progesterone). In recent years, more effective treatments for ovarian cancer have been found, and if this cancer is diagnosed in the early stages, the hope of recovery of a person suffering from ovarian cancer will be higher using these methods. In the picture ovarian cancer, pathologists can see magnified view of the cancerous mass formed inside the ovary.

Anatomy and physiology:

The ovaries are two egg-shaped glands that are located on both sides of the uterus and are connected to the uterus through the fallopian tubes. The ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity. Like the testicles, they are first located in the waist area, but gradually descend and settle in the pelvic cavity. The surface of the ovaries is smooth before puberty and becomes uneven with advancing age. The ovary is connected to the uterus by a special ovarian ligament and is surrounded by a layer of covering cells called the stratum corneum. Inside the ovary, sex cells are seen in different stages of development, along with a number of protective cells and connective tissue. Usually, in each ovarian cycle, several gametes reach maturity. But only one of them leaves the ovary as a mature oocyte. The ovary is present in the body of the female and contains immature eggs that become mature eggs after growth and gain the ability of fertilization. Often one egg is released from one ovary in each cycle. If none of the sperm cells can reach the ovum, after some time the ovum loses its fertilization ability and menstruation occurs.
Ovaries contain follicles that hold eggs. In addition to producing female sex cells (eggs), the ovaries also secrete hormones. In fact, each ovary is made of a number of structural units called follicles, one of which grows in each ovulation period and releases an egg. During or just before ovulation, cervical secretions usually look like egg whites. The more the period passes, the volume of these secretions increases and their texture also changes.

Risk factors:

The following risk factors have a direct relationship with the possibility of this disease progressing:
Family history: Women whose mother or sister or close relatives have ovarian cancer or breast cancer are more likely to develop this disease than others. Genetic testing is done to determine if a person has the gene related to this cancer.
Age: Most ovarian cancers occur after menopause and have been seen especially in women over 63 years old. Before the age of 40, the possibility of this disease is very rare.
Pregnancy history: Women who have experienced one or two full pregnancies, especially before the age of 26, have a greatly reduced risk of developing this cancer. The more pregnancies they have experienced, the lower the risk. Also, breastfeeding reduces the possibility of this cancer.
Birth control pills: Consuming birth control pills for 3 to 6 months reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. The more these pills are used, the lower the risk. Injections of the contraceptive hormone (DMPA), especially for three years or more, reduce the risk of developing this cancer.
Fertility treatment: Fertility drugs are directly related to the risk of ovarian cancer, especially in women who have used this medication for more than a year without becoming pregnant. The possibility of ovarian cancer is higher in women who do not have fertility.
Breast cancer: Unfortunately, women who have breast cancer have a higher chance of ovarian cancer. For this reason, if breast cancer is diagnosed or a positive breast cancer gene is observed in tests, preventive measures are taken.
Hormone therapy: Hormone therapy slightly increases the risk of cancer progression. The longer the hormone therapy continues, the higher the risk of developing this cancer. If the hormone therapy is stopped, the body will return to normal. Androgen therapy, like drug use, increases the risk.
Obesity and Overweight: Obesity and overweight increase the risk of many cancers. Ovarian cancer is more common in women with a body mass index (BMI) above 30.
To be continued …
  استاد شهرام فسازاده، موسیقیدان، هنرمند توانا و نوازنده چیره دست ویولن

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